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eBook Bounded Lives, Bounded Places: Free Black Society in Colonial New Orleans, 1769–1803 ePub

eBook Bounded Lives, Bounded Places: Free Black Society in Colonial New Orleans, 1769–1803 ePub

by Kimberly S. Hanger

  • ISBN: 0822319063
  • Category: Americas
  • Subcategory: History
  • Author: Kimberly S. Hanger
  • Language: English
  • Publisher: Duke University Press Books (March 13, 1997)
  • Pages: 264
  • ePub book: 1913 kb
  • Fb2 book: 1313 kb
  • Other: rtf mobi doc lrf
  • Rating: 4.8
  • Votes: 821

Description

The central theme of Bounded Lives, Bounded Places is the genesis and rise of the free people of color (.

The central theme of Bounded Lives, Bounded Places is the genesis and rise of the free people of color (. non-slaves, or libres), their place in the society of colonial New Orleans in the mid to late 18th century and the manner in which they bettered themselves and their lot. Throughout Kim Hanger's work, the lives, struggles and aspirations of these unique gens de couleur libres (free people of color) are explored, as well as the institutions that played a role in their ascension to an unparalleled class stratum that was truly unique for its time.

Bounded Lives, Bounded Places book. In Bounded Lives, Bounded Places, Kimberly S. Hanger explores the origin of antebellum New Orleans’ large, influential, and propertied free black-or libre-population, one that was unique in the South. Hanger examines the issues libres confronted as they individually and collectively contested their ambiguous status in a complexly stratified society.

Native free blacks in antebellum New Orleans called themselves "creoles," without reference to race or status, and were so. .

Native free blacks in antebellum New Orleans called themselves "creoles," without reference to race or status, and were so identified in the press, judicial records, and common parlance. The qualification "of color" seems to have been largely an adaptation by Reconstruction-era whites determined to have the unmodified title of "creole" restricted to members of their own race.

book by Kimberly S. Hanger.

During Louisiana's Spanish colonial period, economic, political, and military conditions combined with local cultural and legal traditions to favor the growth and development of a substantial group of free blacks.

Introduction: Historical Perspectives on African American Education, Civil Rights, and Black Power.

Kimberly S. Hanger, Bounded Lives, Bounded Places: Free Black Society in Colonial New Orleans, 1769-1803. Introduction: Historical Perspectives on African American Education, Civil Rights, and Black Power. Danns et al. 1427 East 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637. Hanger, Bounded Lives, Bounded Places: Free Black Society in Colonial New Orleans, 1769–1803 (Durham: Duke University Press, 1997, £4. 0 cloth, £1. 5 paper). Pp. 248. ISBN 0 3, 0 9.

Bounded Lives, Bounded Places: Free Black Society in Colonial New Orleans, 1769-1803. This chapter explores the world inhabited by free black women or libre women in colonial New Orleans. The Journal of Southern History. Coping in a Complex World Free Black Women in Colonial New Orleans.

During Louisiana’s Spanish colonial period, economic, political, and military conditions combined with local cultural and legal traditions to favor the growth and development of a substantial group of free blacks.

Hanger, Kimberly S. 1996 Bounded Lives, Bounded Places: Free Black Society in Colonial New Orleans, 1769–1803. McGowan, James Thomas 1976 Creation of a Slave Society: Louisiana Plantations in the Eighteenth Century. Duke University Press, Durham, N. oogle Scholar. Hermann, L. 1845 Document 10/161. dissertation, Department of History, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY University Microfilms International, Ann Arbor, M. Miller, George L. 1991 A Revised Set of CC Index Values for Classification and Economic Scaling of English Ceramics from 1787 to 1880.

From Kimberly S. Hanger, Bounded Lives, Bounded Places: Free Black Society in Colonial New Orleáns, 1769 . Hanger, Bounded Lives, Bounded Places: Free Black Society in Colonial New Orleáns, 1769 -1803. Angelica Forest (Morena Libre) Excerpts From Notarial Books of Juan Bautista Garic Joseph Cabaret (Pardo Libre) Maria Juana Prudhome (Parda) Anonymous Male (White) Carlos Decoudreaux (Cuarteron) Don Juan Antonio Lugar (White) Margarita Castanedo (Cuarterona) Rita (Cuarterona) Petrona (Cuarterona) Her daughter, Margarita Castanedo married a free man of color named Carlos Decoudreaux with connections to white society as well.

During Louisiana’s Spanish colonial period, economic, political, and military conditions combined with local cultural and legal traditions to favor the growth and development of a substantial group of free blacks. In Bounded Lives, Bounded Places, Kimberly S. Hanger explores the origin of antebellum New Orleans’ large, influential, and propertied free black—or libre—population, one that was unique in the South. Hanger examines the issues libres confronted as they individually and collectively contested their ambiguous status in a complexly stratified society.Drawing on rare archives in Louisiana and Spain, Hanger reconstructs the world of late-eighteenth-century New Orleans from the perspective of its free black residents, and documents the common experiences and enterprises that helped solidify libres’ sense of group identity. Over the course of three and a half decades of Spanish rule, free people of African descent in New Orleans made their greatest advances in terms of legal rights and privileges, demographic expansion, vocational responsibilities, and social standing. Although not all blacks in Spanish New Orleans yearned for expanded opportunity, Hanger shows that those who did were more likely to succeed under Spain’s dominion than under the governance of France, Great Britain, or the United States. The advent of U.S. rule brought restrictions to both manumission and free black activities in New Orleans. Nonetheless, the colonial libre population became the foundation for the city’s prosperous and much acclaimed Creoles of Color during the antebellum era.

Comments

Grosho Grosho
The main contribution this book offers is a discussion of the "pardo," or light-skinned, and "moreno," or dark-skinned, militia in Spanish New Orleans, and how service in those respective militias correlated to social advancement for free blacks, or as she calls them, "libres," even within the white-based social hierarchy. Prof. Hanger also does a great job of laying out the fundamentals of libre kinship networks, and family structure, including extremely detailed analysis of wills, inheritance, marriages, and fictive relations (or "compadrazgo"). However, Prof. Hanger does not engage in the important social discourse between pardos and morenos, and the cultural and political values that both groups attached to the all-important issue of skin-color. She touches on it at times, especially in the final chapter, but never expands on the topic, leaving the reader with more questions than answer regarding the cultural and political workings of the respective light-skinned and dark-skinned free black populations in New Orleans. She does, however, provide important evidence for the origins of New Orleans's antebellum free black elite (usually light-skinned, and of mixed-race) as early as the beginning of the Spanish Period (1769-1803). Overall, this book is required reading for anyone interested in New Orleans's complex and endlessly fascinating free black community; but additional reading is required if one is to get a full picture even of the Spanish Period, much less the city's pre-Civil War years as a whole (1718-1862).
Ynneig Ynneig
Black militia Captains, and Lieutenants, the growth of a black middle class, interracial marriages, the first licensed black physician, racially integrated balls all occurred under Spanish rule in New Orleans according to this interesting work. However, the author also makes clear that this was still a racist society in which only black people could be held in bondage. Yet, taken as a whole, the book asserts that the Spanish regime was less evil than the preceding French rule and the antebellum American regime which followed. The author includes substantial original sources for her assertions. Well worth the money.

Richard Ivo Kress
Silver Spring, Maryland
Xanzay Xanzay
The central theme of Bounded Lives, Bounded Places is the genesis and rise of the free people of color (i.e. non-slaves, or libres), their place in the society of colonial New Orleans in the mid to late 18th century and the manner in which they bettered themselves and their lot. Throughout Kim Hanger's work, the lives, struggles and aspirations of these unique gens de couleur libres (free people of color) are explored, as well as the institutions that played a role in their ascension to an unparalleled class stratum that was truly unique for its time.

The organization of the book is methodical, concise and logically ordered. Following the introduction, chapter one discusses how libres understood freedom, what it meant for them and their kin, and the methods by which they could obtain it. In chapter two, Hanger demonstrates how, through work and property accumulation, libres negotiated themselves into secure positions in various areas of the social hierarchy. The concept of family values and how kinship helped or hindered libres' chances of success are explored in chapter three. In chapter four, the reader learns how military service propelled libres to achieve and enhance their status as a powerful group. Chapter five examines ways in which libres interacted with whites and slaves and how those relationships reinforced libre identity.

The author's tome provides specific and detailed information about a topic that seems to have been largely neglected. In no small measure, Hanger reinforces her assertions with ample statistics and analysis, making her book a laborious read at times. It will be readily apparent to the layman reader that her target audience for the book is the researcher and historian. Nonetheless, there is a need for such works that serve the interests of academics, and the keen reader and amateur historian can still garner a plethora of information on the subject.

The contemporary reader may find it difficult to comprehend colonial era notions of slavery, manumission, self-manumission and the owning of slaves by former slaves. Despite of the sensitivity of the material, the author does not deviate from the core mission of the book: documenting and supporting her research with examples (as any credible historian should), while resisting the modern day urge to opine on the ethics of slavery, or parrot politically correct judgments and sound bites. Instead, Hanger manages to bring back to life a number of principal individuals, like the pardo libre (free brown-skinned) Pedro Bailey whose outspoken manner on the issue of libre equality (or the lack thereof) caused him a great deal of trouble with the Spanish government.

The concept of the libre merits additional analysis. Although they were not necessarily on equal footing with whites, libres were nonetheless liberated. That freedom caused them to unify into a single group within a three-tiered social order, with white Europeans above and slaves below. Consequently, colonial New Orleans's free black population found themselves in an untenable position: attempting to assert their status as free people to the dominant white bourgeoisie while simultaneously maintaining a necessary and distinctive delineation from the slave class. These pressures came together from opposite ends, invariably creating tight internal cohesions that reinforced the unique libre identity. A notable example of this was the libre militia. More than just a military institution whose mission was to protect the Spanish crown's interests, it also served as an extensive and exclusive social web wherein officers would inter-marry into families of colleagues, stand in as godparents for children of other officers, and even assist their brothers in arms with loans and financial guarantees.

Hanger contends that the notion of a person's race could be malleable depending upon the situation. The problematic issue of conjugal relationships between white Europeans and libres illustrates a prime case of such racial adaptability. While religious and societal leaders discouraged such mixed unions, a libre woman might secure the sacrament of holy matrimony to a wealthy white European if she herself was sufficiently white. It is apparent through such exceptions that in colonial Louisiana, one's racial identity could alter, depending on circumstances. This racial "hedging" offered some libres a powerful card in the racial deck: if your pigmentation was light enough, you could ascend higher into the social stratum and distance yourself even further from darker skinned libres. Such thinking obviously transformed the concept of race into a chameleon-like quality that could be used by certain libres to enhance their status and insure prosperity for themselves and their progeny.

Overall, Hanger's work provides a solid study of the life of libres under Spain's colonial Louisiana. Diligent students of Louisiana's rich history will find that it gives a unique and objective examination of a fascinating group of people whose existence was a juxtapositional collage of bondage and freedom, despair and hope, failure and ambition, and probably most significant of all, irony.
Opithris Opithris
The study of Louisiana history has often been regarded by some as a parallel to a famous Cajun dish - Gumbo. Gumbo is a massive mixture of many seemingly unrelated ingredients and spices that are thrown together in one pot. Once cooked, this Louisiana dish simply cannot be beat. This parallel to Louisiana history is especially true when one examines the libre (free black) population in and around New Orleans from 1769 to 1803.

To understand the libre plight, one must consider the efforts of the French, Spanish, and United States established governments in Louisiana in the 18th and early 19th centuries and the roles each played in the lives of the libres. In her book "Bounded Lives, Bounded Places," Kimberly Hangar asserts that although these libres were considered free, they often found themselves contained within the confines of the fixed caste systems of the French and Spanish.

During the Spanish era (1763-1800), the number of free blacks in New Orleans increased, and with this increase a group identity developed as libres began to push against the confines of the caste system. This identity was based upon "phenotype (mixed race), occupation, family networks, military service, religious and leisure activities, and political expression." And, it was an identity which left them in between two extremes; not a slave, yet not quite free.