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eBook God's Crucible: Islam and the Making of Europe, 570-1215 ePub

eBook God's Crucible: Islam and the Making of Europe, 570-1215 ePub

by David Levering Lewis

  • ISBN: 0393333566
  • Category: Europe
  • Subcategory: History
  • Author: David Levering Lewis
  • Language: English
  • Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company; Reprint edition (January 12, 2009)
  • Pages: 384
  • ePub book: 1618 kb
  • Fb2 book: 1846 kb
  • Other: lrf mobi lit azw
  • Rating: 4.9
  • Votes: 757

Description

Hailed by critics as an essential book, God's Crucible is a bold, new interpretation of Islamic Spain and the birth of Europe from one of our greatest historians.

Hailed by critics as an essential book, God's Crucible is a bold, new interpretation of Islamic Spain and the birth of Europe from one of our greatest historians.

David Levering Lewis, the author of God's Crucible, is professor emeritus of history at New York University. A recipient of the National Humanities Medal, Lewis received the Pulitzer Prize for each volume of his . He lives in New York City. Библиографические данные. God's Crucible: Islam and the Making of Europe, 570 to 1215.

David Levering Lewis, the author of God’s Crucible, is professor emeritus of history at New York University. God's Crucible: Islam and the Making of Europe, 570-1215. David Levering Lewis.

Электронная книга "God's Crucible: Islam and the Making of Europe, 570-1215", David Levering Lewis. Эту книгу можно прочитать в Google Play Книгах на компьютере, а также на устройствах Android и iOS. Выделяйте текст, добавляйте закладки и делайте заметки, скачав книгу "God's Crucible: Islam and the Making of Europe, 570-1215" для чтения в офлайн-режиме.

David Levering Lewis's masterful history begins with the fall of the Persian and Roman empires, followed by the rise of. .Hailed by critics as an essential book, God's Crucible is a bold, new interpretation of Islamic Spain and the birth of Europe from one of our greatest historians.

David Levering Lewis's masterful history begins with the fall of the Persian and Roman empires, followed by the rise of the prophet Muhammad and the creation of Muslim Spain. Five centuries of engagement between the Muslim imperium and an emerging Europe followed, from the Muslim conquest of Visigoth Hispania in 711 to Latin Christendom's declaration of unconditional warfare on the Caliphate in 1215.

David Levering Lewis’s history of Arab rule in Spain focuses on its ethic of mutuality.

God's Crucible points out that the rulers of al-Andalus pursued a policy of civil pluralism permitting a latitude of mores .

God's Crucible points out that the rulers of al-Andalus pursued a policy of civil pluralism permitting a latitude of mores, beliefs and institutions unmatched in the West since Augustan Rome. Aside from this contribution to the debate about Islam's role in the making of Europe, the book is written with remarkable fluidity, a rare achievement considering the historical complexities it covers. Read also: The Myth of Traditional Sovereignty? Post-Western World’s Books of the Year.

And those historians like David Levering Lewis who regret the missed opportunity at Poitiers might also reflect .

And those historians like David Levering Lewis who regret the missed opportunity at Poitiers might also reflect that in a Muslim Europe there would have been no Italian Renaissance, when influences from the East were actually being felt, but from Constantinople, not Islam (and when Islam had retrogressed from its position a few hundred years earlier).

David Levering Lewis's mast Похожие книги: God?s Crucible – Islam and the Making of Europe 570 – 1215.

David Levering Lewis's mast. David Levering Lewis's masterful history begins with the fall of the Persian and Roman empires, followed by the rise of the prophet Muhammad and the creation of Muslim Spain. Похожие книги: God?s Crucible – Islam and the Making of Europe 570 – 1215. God?s Crucible – Islam and the Making of Europe 570 – 1 от 2312. God?s Crucible – Islam and the Making of Europe 570 – 1215.

Levering-Lewis is a great storyteller. After reading Reza Aslan's No God But God, I wanted to understand how the conflict between the West and the East developed to the point where we are today. God's Crucible is an easy read, and full of fascinating details on the history of our two cultures.

"A furiously complex age; a powerful narrative."--New York Times Book Review, Editor's Choice

At the beginning of the eighth century, the Arabs brought a momentous revolution in power, religion, and culture to Dark Ages Europe. David Levering Lewis's masterful history begins with the fall of the Persian and Roman empires, followed by the rise of the prophet Muhammad and the creation of Muslim Spain. Five centuries of engagement between the Muslim imperium and an emerging Europe followed, from the Muslim conquest of Visigoth Hispania in 711 to Latin Christendom's declaration of unconditional warfare on the Caliphate in 1215. Lewis's narrative, filled with accounts of some of the greatest battles in world history, reveals how cosmopolitan, Muslim al-Andalus flourished--a beacon of cooperation and tolerance between Islam, Judaism, and Christianity--while proto-Europe, defining itself in opposition to Islam, made virtues out of hereditary aristocracy, religious intolerance, perpetual war, and slavery. A cautionary tale, God's Crucible provides a new interpretation of world-altering events whose influence remains as current as today's headlines. 8 pages of illustrations; 4 maps

Comments

Goldfury Goldfury
Enjoyed thoroughly and will continue to do, as this strikes me as awesome work that casts light on the complicated but compelling sweep of Islam. Much more detail of individual battles and important people. But that's more a comment on what I expected compared to the work presented.
So much here to recommend in the hopes of understanding certain realities.
Lewis gives much of himself in this piece, and I was as charmed by his wit as appreciative of his incredible knowledge.
Bliss Bliss
Like the point of view.
Aloo Aloo
An excellent overview of a much misunderstood and unknown part of history. A difficult read though because of the profusion of Arab names, mixing them with nicknames, or other nomenclature for the same person. Also a lot of jumping back and forth from one timeframe to another.
Detenta Detenta
Very interesting book, honest and many information related to that decisive period.
Eta Eta
I was glad to read this book, and learned a lot from it, but I give it some demerits in the rating because it is not what it leads you to expect: an examination of the relation between Islam and "the making of Europe" (the book's subtitle). The review that inspired me to buy the book stated (the reviewer being hypnotized, I guess, by the misleading subtitle) that the growth of "Europe" as a distinct entity was in great part the result of "the development, in the Iberian peninsula... of the Muslim culture of Spain." I can't help wondering why the book is misrepresented in this way. Perhaps the author believes that this is what happened in history, even if he doesn't offer any evidence in the book. Or perhaps the publisher is to blame. Publishers are always eager to devise snappy titles to stimulate sales, and ensuring that a title matches the contents of a book is not always a top priority.

The subtitle should have been closer to the publisher's blurb, announcing the book's subject: "how cosmopolitan Muslin Al-Andalus flourished - a beacon of cooperation and tolerance - while proto-Europe floundered in darkness." That is actually what the book is mainly about. The focus is on the period from 755, when Abd Al-Rahman I came to power in what is now Spain and built the astonishingly advanced Muslim society there, and 976, when it was replaced by a harsh, bigoted autocracy. That was an era when the architectural masterpieces of the region were built, religious and racial tolerance ruled, and respect for intellectual achievements was at a high level. Lewis states that, in the tenth century, the library in Cordoba contained four hundred thousand volumes, at a time that a library in the center of Europe was lucky to have a few hundred. It is thanks to the Muslim thinkers in Iberia that Europe gained access to the writings of Aristotle and Plato, as well as advanced mathematics based on Arabic numerals and the zero. While Abd Al-Rahman was constructing his world in Iberia, Charlemagne was conquering most of the rest of Europe. But in contrast to the highly cultivated Muslim emirs, Charlemagne was nearly illiterate, and in comparison with the palace of the Muslim ruler, "Charlemagne's official residence at Aachen was a hovel." There was of course no religious tolerance in Europe, and Charlemagne unhesitatingly slaughtered the Saxons and others who were reluctant to embrace Christianity.

It would seem to be quite clear that Muslim Iberia was incredibly more advanced than Christian Europe. But the two were quite separate, and there was little contact between them, or influence from one to the other. The Muslims stayed pretty much out of Europe after the battle of Poitiers in 732, and no European army tried to conquer Iberia after Charlemagne tried and failed later in the eighth century. The author makes this very clear, stating at one point that the Muslim Iberian civilization "might as well have existed on another planet" as far as Charlemagne and his pals were concerned. In fact, the major influence that the author visualizes is one that never happened: a Muslim victory at the battle of Poitiers, when the Muslim army invaded France and was driven back to Iberia by Charles Martel (Charlemagne's grandfather). The author approvingly quotes historians who have felt that it would have been better if the Muslims had won, so they could have expanded their advanced civilization throughout Europe, but the actual result was "an economically retarded, balkanized, fratricidal Europe."

Well, if you are going to play "what if" history, even if you assume the Muslims could have magically transformed all of Europe into an intellectual and social paradise (which is far from certain), you would also have to assume that the Muslims would have abolished that paradise in later centuries, as they did in Iberia, replacing it with "an economically retarded, balkanized, fratricidal" Spain.

You can read all about that deterioration of the Muslim world following the "Renaissance of Islam" in the eighth to tenth centuries in the books of Bernard Lewis (whom David Levering Lewis salutes as a mentor), such as "The Middle East" and the aptly titled "What Went Wrong?" (that is, why did Islam fail to keep up with the rest of the world?). Aside from relatively brief periods such as the two centuries in Iberia, and the Seljuk Empire which ruled southwest Asia for a time in the tenth century, the Muslim world has usually been marked by what Bernard Lewis calls "a process of political fragmentation," squabbling between rival Islamic sects, and meager intellectual accomplishments. And there has been little change in the character of Islam in the last thousand years or so.

And those historians like David Levering Lewis who regret the missed opportunity at Poitiers might also reflect that in a Muslim Europe there would have been no Italian Renaissance, when influences from the East were actually being felt, but from Constantinople, not Islam (and when Islam had retrogressed from its position a few hundred years earlier).

As I said, I learned a lot from this book, but nothing on "the making of Europe," as the subtitle indicates, and what some reviewers (such as one cited by Amazon) think it is about. Some commentators on this forum think the author is biased against European civilization in general. I didn't get that impression, but it doesn't matter. After all, he is concerned with a period when Europe was an intellectual backwater.
Dawncrusher Dawncrusher
This book provides a good basic overview of the birth and development of early Islam, the conquests that followed, and the impact on early Spain and Europe. The author however plays fast and loose with quite a few details which seriously detracts from the quality of the book. Specific examples: the author lists the Via Augusta as going from Cadiz all the way to Rome, having an astonishing length of 13,000 miles (that would be halfway around the equator). In fact, the Via Augusta went from Cadiz, crossed the Pyrenees and joined the Via Domitia and its overall length was a respectable 1000 miles (approximately). Another example - the legendary Berber queen Kahina who fought the Arabs in the 7th century is listed categorically as being Jewish. Maybe, maybe not. The Encyclopedia Judaica as well as a few other sources seem to be quite dismissive of this notion and at best, it is controversial. One would expect such a respected Historian and Pulitzer winner to be much more careful because I'm sure that the last thing he would want to do is perpetuate errors through sloppiness.

Overall - quite an enjoyable read.

These comments pertain to the Kindle edition.
Dammy Dammy
The reader should be aware of the fact that this author has a grudge against Christianity and this bias appears from time to time in his work. While I found few details with which I strongly disagreed, I believe the book should be viewed as something less than an objective scholarly work.
A must read for anyone who wants to understand this Brisbane and thus the history of your outstanding history which comes alive